Philosophy (PHIL)

Major Courses

PHIL A201 Practical Logic 3 crs.

This course introduces students to the application of practical logical techniques in the analysis and formulation of rational arguments. Topics include how to find premises and conclusions in an argument, definitions, informal fallacies, syllogisms, Venn diagrams, induction, and Mill’s methods.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A206 Introduction to Symbolic Logic 3 crs.

This course is an introduction to the techniques of symbolic logic in argument analysis and to the science of logic as the analysis of formal deductive systems.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A210 Metaphysics 3 crs.

This course is an historical and theoretical examination of the question, "What does it mean to be?" or "What is reality, as distinct from mere appearance?" The course begins with a study of ancient philosophical explanations of reality and goes on to study the historical evolution of both the problem of metaphysics and its various resolutions.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A215 Ethics 3 crs.

This course is a historical and problematic investigation of traditional ethical positions and texts, especially focusing on teleological, deontological theories, and virtue ethics and on contemporary responses to them.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A220 Epistemology 3 crs.

This course takes a historical and problematic approach to the problems of knowledge, with emphasis on the main theories of knowledge in ancient and modern philosophy as well as contemporary discussions of the nature of knowledge.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A225 Philosophy of Law 3 crs.

This course is an inquiry into the nature of law, the relevance of law to morality, the concepts of responsibility in the law, punishment, and the relevance to law of the concepts of justice, equality, and liberty. The philosophical assumptions that underlie criminal law and private law are explored. Readings are taken from classical and recent philosophers of law.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A230 Philosophy of Religion 3 crs.

This course is a study of several philosophical problems that arise from belief in the existence of God.  Topics examined include: evidentialism and religious belief, the meaningfulness of religious language, arguments for the existence of God, problems of divine omnipotence, the difficulty of reconciling divine ominiscience with human freedom, the problem of evil, and the conceivabiity of life after death.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A300 Philosophy of Science 3 crs.

This course is an introduction to basic themes of recent philosophy of science including scientific methodology, concepts and presuppositions. Through an examination of different models of scientific explanation, the course exposes students to problems of justifying scientific theories, and the relationship between theories and reality.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A307 Philosophy of Mind 3 crs.

This course examines different theories of the nature of mind beginning with an examination of the traditional mind-body problem in the works of Descartes. It subsequently explores alternative positions that have been presented by Descartes’ contemporaries in the classical period, as well as contemporaries of our own. Emphasis is placed on such areas as mind-body identity/interaction, brain process, language, perception, sensation, emotion, personal identity, and free will.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A309 Naturalism and Its Critics 3 crs.

The natural sciences present an admirable model for knowledge.  But naturalism (the idea that nature as understood by the sciences is all there is) can seem ill-equipped to explain some important phenomena (including values and consciousness).  This class evaluates naturalism by considering naturalist, anti-naturalist, and compromise views.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A320 Social and Political Philosophy 3 crs.

This course is an inquiry into the origin, nature, and necessity of political order. The relation of the individual to the social and political whole, the origin, nature, and just use of political authority, the nature of rights and duty, the problem of freedom, and the philosophical prerequisites of a just social order are addressed.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A330 Modern Political Theory 3 crs.

This course is an introduction to modern political theory through explication and critique of readings from classics of modern political thought. Readings are selected from works by major theorists such as Machiavelli, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Kant, Burke, Bentham, de Tocqueville, Hegel, Marx and Mill.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A340 Being and God   3 crs.

RAC: Premodern

This course exams of the nature of being and the existence of God from the standpoint of classical metaphysics. It studies topics such as the structure of finite being, the transcendentals, analogy and univocity of being, metaphysical causality and the problem of creation.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A400 History of Ancient Philosophy 3 crs.

RAC: Premodern

In this course, the Pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, the Epicurians, Sceptics, Stoics, Plotinus, and early Christian thought are discussed.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A405 History of Medieval Philosophy 3 crs.

RAC: Premodern

This course offers an historical study of the main ideas of the medieval period from St. Augustine to the Renaissance.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A408 Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas 3 crs.

RAC: Premodern

This course offers an introduction to the central philosophical positions of Thomas Aquinas. It examines Aquinas' views on the relationship between faith and reason, his metaphysics of being, his analysis of human knowledge, his theory of human nature, and his defense of human freedom. Special attention is also devoted to the Greek and Arabic sources of Aquinas' philosophy and to his place in the history of medieval philosophy.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A410 History of Modern European Philosophy 3 crs.

This course discusses readings from works of Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A416 History of 19th-century Philosophy 3 crs.

A survey of the major traditions in post-Kantian philosophy ending with Nietzsche, this course explores the interrelations between different themes in 19th-century thought and how they laid the foundation for 20th-century philosophy.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A430 American Philosophy 3 crs.

This course is a study of the philosophies of Pierce, James, Dewey, Royce, Santayana, Mead, Lewis, and Whitehead, with emphasis on the emergence of classical American philosophy as a response to philosophic, social, and scientific developments.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A435 Existentialism 3 crs.

This course examines the treatment of the characteristic existential themes as exemplified in the writings of Kierkegard, Nietzsche, Heideggar, Jaspers, Marcel, and Sartre.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A440 Phenomenology 3 crs.

This course treats the problems which gave rise to contemporary phenomenology, existential phenomenology, and hermeneutic phenomenology, and various writers in that tradition, such as Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, and Ricoeur.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A465 Introduction to Analytic Philosophy 3 crs.

This course is a study of the movement of 20th-century Anglo-American analytic philosophy as practiced by Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, the logical positivists, ordinary language analysts, Quine, and contemporary language analysts.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL A490 Seminar: Ancient Philosophy 3 crs.

RAC: Premodern

This course is a detailed study of an author or texts from the ancient period.

PHIL A491 Seminar: Medieval Philosophy 3 crs.

RAC: Premodern

This course is a detailed study of an author or texts from the medieval period.

PHIL A492 Seminar: Modern Philosophy 3 crs.

This course is a detailed study of an author or texts from the modern period. 

PHIL A493 Seminar: Major Author 3 crs.

This course is an in-depth analysis of the thought of a major philosopher. Content varies.

Prerequisite: permission of instructor

PHIL A495 Special Project credits vary

This project focuses on the creative or productive efforts of one or more students. A special project is distinguished from a research project in its lack of the historical or experimental method and perspective characteristics of research.

PHIL A496 Seminar/Workshop credits vary

In a seminar, a supervised group of students share the results of their research on a common topic. In a workshop, a supervised group of students participate in a common effort.

PHIL A498 Philosophy Honors Thesis 3 crs.

Students undertake a research project under the supervision of a professor that culminates in the writing of an undergraduate thesis.

PHIL A499 Independent Study credits vary

PHIL H295 Honors Seminar 3 crs.

University Honors Program

This course is an in-depth analysis of a major topic/theme in philosophy. Content varies.

Introductory Common Curriculum

PHIL T121 First-Year Seminar 3 crs.

Introductory Common Curriculum: First-Year Seminar

The gateway course to the Common Curriculum is the First-Year Seminar (FYS). This issues-based, interdisciplinary seminar introduces students to college-level thinking and learning as well as Jesuit values at the core of a Loyola education. This FYS has a specific topic within the scope of Philosophy. A full list of currently offered FYS courses can be found on the Loyola Online Records Access (LORA) system.

PHIL T122 Philosophy of the Human Person 3 crs.

Introductory Common Curriculum: Philosophy

This course serves as an introductory course to philosophy and is a humanitistic study of the most fundamental problems of human existence. Among the topics that this course examines are: the nature of philosophical inquiry, the nature of the human person; the relation of the human person to the cosmos; the issue of freedom and determinism; the relation of the human person to the social; the nature of human knowing, and the nature of human responsibility and purpose. 

Advanced Common Curriculum

PHIL J234 Medical Ethics 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Foundational Ethics or Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge

This course examines ethical issues in medicine and the provision of healthcare.  It analyzes questions about the values that inform the relationship between health-care workers and patients, ethical issues concerning refusal of treatment, privacy and informed consent, human subject research and informed consent.  The course also addresses the ethics of abortion and euthanasia, as well as the moral implications of genetic testing, reproductive services, access to health care and priority setting for health.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122
This course replaces PHIL V234

PHIL J238 Imaginary Voyages: Fantasy & Reality in Philosophy & Film

Advanced Common Curriculum: Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge

In this course, the interrelationship between fantasy and reality are explored through the lens of philosophy and film. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the Hegelian-Marxist dialectical tradition and the Freudian-Lacanian psychoanalytical tradition shed light on this question. Throughout the semester, students explore topics such as: fantasy and the fundamental fantasy; dreams and the dream work; ideology and the critique of ideology; fetishism and the fetishism of commodities; the spectacle, the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real. Selected readings from philosophers such as Freud, Hegel, Marx and Debord as well as selected films of David Lynch and Slavoj Zizek are part of this course. 

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL J241 Philosophical Perspective on Woman 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge
RAC: Diversity

This course introduces students to feminist philosophy by examining major theories that have supported feminism both as a political and as a philosophical movement.  It examines the philosophical principles underlying important schools of feminist inquiry–liberal, Marxist, and radical feminism. Discussions center on themes that explore the relationship between knowledge and reality concerning the "nature" of woman and man.  Students reflect on the role of science, religion, philosophy, and the media in grounding and shaping ethical, social, and political discourses about women.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122
This course replaces PHIL V241

PHIL J243 Environmental Philosophy 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Philosophy II: Foundations of Knoweldge

This course offers an overview of the environmental crisis and evaluates the leading contemporary philosophical accounts of both the origins of the crisis and the ethical orientations needed for its resolution.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122
This course replaces PHIL V243

PHIL J244 Law and Morality 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Foundational Ethics or Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge

This course presents and analyzes a number of frameworks for conducting ethical reasoning in the context of the law.  Among the questions it studies are: how should we conceive of the relationship between moral principles and legal norms? does the law command our allegiance and respect from a moral point of view? how should moral principles and moral argument inform actual legislation? Relevant moral frameworks for addressing these questions include, but are not limited to, natural law theory, legal realism, legal positivism, critical legal theory and feminist legal theory.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122
This course replaces PHIL V244

PHIL J245 Environmental Ethics 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Foundational Ethics or Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge

This course examines our moral responsibilities to the beings in the natural world.  Among the topics discussed are environmental justice, biodiversity loss, animal welfare, wilderness preservation, world population, global climate change, toxics and pollution, duties to future generations, and the meaning of sustainability.  Students learn to analyze various positions in evironmental ethics, including anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism, and various theories, including ecofeminism, the land ethic, and deep ecology.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122
This course replaces PHIL V245

PHIL J252 Making Moral Decisions 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Foundational Ethics or Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge

This course treats the nature of personal and moral decision making leading to consideration of some ethical positions influential in contemporary philosophical discourse (e.g., Kantian deontology, utilitarianism, natural law theory, etc.) and their application to contemporary moral problems. Cross-listed with PHIL A215.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122
This course replaces PHIL V252

PHIL J270 Philosophy and Religion in the Middle Ages 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge
RAC: Catholic Traditions; Premodern

This course examines the nature and goals of philosophy as it was practiced in the medieval world.  It looks at the various ways in which philosophy was transformed by its encounter with Christianity and the extent to which it remained an autonomous discipline in the Middle Ages.  Among the tpoics to be studied are: the possibility of "Christian philosophy"; the various theoretical solutions that the medievals offered to the problem of faith and reason; and some philosophical constroversies involving religious belief (e.g., eternity of the world, monopsychism, rationalism).

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL J272 Philosophy of Knowledge 3crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge

This course focuses on a philosophic question that is important to every other intellectual discipline: how do we know what we know? Questions covered may include: Is knowledge something forged independently by individual inquirers, or is it inherited from a social tradition? Does it have foundations in our observations of the world, as in natural science, or in purely intellectual axioms, as in mathematics? Has our knowledge any solid "foundations" at all, or is it more like a living, organic whole? What are the implications of different answers to these questions for science, religion, and our commonsense view of the world?

Prerequisite: PHIL T122
This course replaces PHIL V270

PHIL J275 Race, Racism, & Social Justice

Advanced Common Curriculum: Philosophy II: Foundations of Knowledge

This course examines various philosophical issues connected to race and racism.  Primary among those issues is the nature of 'race,' and the questions of whether races are biologically determined or socially constructed. The nature of racism and its connection to the concept of race is also considered. The class ends by examining the relationship between these philosophical issues and contemporary social concerns connected to race and racism.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

PHIL U230 Aesthetics 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

This course offers an introduction to the major issues of aesthetics. Topics for consideration include: a brief survey of the history of art, the nature of art, the nature of beauty, the criterion for aesthetic goodness, the interpretation of artwork, metaphor and representation in art, and the aesthetic experience.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U234 Buddhist Philosophy 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

This course constitutes an introduction to Buddhist philosophy through the study of basic themes and concepts, classic texts, and major thinkers and schools.  We will investigate theories concerning the nature of reality, knowledge and value, and basic theoretical concepts such as emptiness, dependent origination, impermanence, selflessness, suffering and release.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U237 Indian Philosophy 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

A survey of philosophical traditions of India. This course is designed to help students to extend their knowledge to the wisdom of the East. The study includes the philosophies of the Vedas, Upanishads, Buddhism, Jainism, Mimamsa, Nyaya, Vaisesika, Sankhya, Yoga, Vedanta, Bhagavadgita, and of some contemporary thinkers such as Aurobindo, Vivekanada, Tagore, Gandhi, and Radhakrishnan.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U238 Philosophy and Literature 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

This course acquaints students with the multifarious relationship between philosophy and literature as staged in some seminal texts of philosophy. The course also demonstrates that (the definition of) literature has often been inscribed in philosophical frameworks by tracing some concepts (metaphor, work, text, author) central to both philosophy and literature/literary theory.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U239 Divine Madness 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

This course is an exploration of the relationship among philosophy, mysticism, and madness following the theme of theosis (divine madness) introduced by Plato through a selective reading of the history of philosophy, Christian mysticism, and modern psychology.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U258 Philosophical Anthropology 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

This course acquaints students with basic issues in the philosophy of human nature. It also teaches students to think critically and constructively about philosophies of human nature by drawing out the implications of basic statements about the nature of human beings.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U260 Worldviews and Ethics 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

Our morality cannot be divorced from our understanding of reality. This course will explore how our view of reality affects our moral judgments by examining the worldviews and moralities of both the ancient Greeks and subsequent Christian philosophers. Readings are taken from Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U262 Classics in Moral Literature 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Premodern

This course is a study of classics that reflect the gradual transformation of moral consciousness in antiquity, including readings from Plato and Aristotle. The implications of ancient moral thought and its abandonment by modernity are examined in two classics of modern moral literature, one from Kant and the other from Nietzsche.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL U286 Religious Experience and Philosophy 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/ Arts Premodern

Accounts of religious experience unfold their fundamental meaning and structures in relation to those of human experience in general. Students come to understand explicitly the nature, limits and implications, and the foundations in existence of religious experience.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Premodern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL V235 Philosophy of Right 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

This course is a philosophical expose of the life, struggles, death, and ultimate transformation of the concept of "right." The central issue of the course: Is the violation of a human right a crime against nature?

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL V240 European World Views 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

This course attempts to clarify the philosophical framework underlying contemporary thought, expression, and science in contrast to the framework of the modern period of philosophy (17th — 18th centuries) by investigating four or five contemporary European philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Marcel, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.
 

PHIL V247 Global Ethics 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

This course will investigate issues in social ethics in a global context. Topics include globalization, poverty, world hunger, population, status of women, models of development, and the role of transnational corporations, states and voluntary organizations. Perspectives studied include rights theory, contract theory, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, human capabilities theory, and the ethics of care.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122 

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL V260 Social Justice 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

An examination of the concept of social justice by means of a careful reading of classic texts from the Old Testament, New Testament, Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, and Locke.  Central issues of the course include interpretations of property rights (private, public, common), alternative economic systems (markets, planning, mixed economies), poverty and poverty alleviation, and governments' roles in establishing social justice.

Prerequisites: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL V267 Technology and Human Values 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

A study of the relationships among technology, social change, and human values, this course includes analyses of several visions of the promises and threats of technology and a survey of the history of technology. Other topics include human nature, freedom, the impact of technology upon nature, and alternative technologies.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.
 

PHIL V277 Minds and Machines 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

This course focuses on the structures and nature of human consciousness, and serves as an introduction to contemporary discussion and issues associated with the philosophy of mind. Criteria for determining the nature and structure of consciousness are developed through models employed in computers by artificial intelligence programs. No computer experience is required for this course.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL V278 Philosophy of God 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

This course treats the existence and the nature of God according to the philosophies of Kant, Anselm, Aquinas, and Whitehead. Among the topics of discussion are: atheism, agnosticism, theism, and the process philosophy.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL V280 Freedom and Oppression 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

This course explores the conceptual relationship between freedom and oppression, how the philosophical limits of the former determine our understanding of the latter, and how such an understanding would help us to address the problem of oppression. Readings are taken from Sartre, Marx, Camus, Skinner, and others.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.

PHIL V281 Philosophical Reason and Catholic Faith 3 crs.

Advanced Common Curriculum: Humanities/Arts Modern

This course considers the relation between reason and faith, and philosophy and theology, with special attention to Catholic faith. It focuses on contrasting views of these relations in such authors as Augustine, Aquinas, Lonergan, Rahner, Kierkegaard, Peperzak, Ricoeur, Jean-Luc Marion, John Caputo, John Haldane, and John Paul II.

Prerequisite: PHIL T122

This course satisfies a Common Curriculum Humanities/Arts Modern requirement for students who began their program of study before fall semester 2013. This course does not satisfy requirements for the 2013-2014 Common Curriculum.